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symbiogenesisSymbiogenese (ger.)

  • 1) The process resulting in organisms of different species living together (especially in ants).

    as Wasmann shows, the problem of symbiogenesis is much more complicated than it appeared when the above sequence was suggested. It now seems evident that several lines of development have proceeded independently from cases of plesiobiosis (and possibly also parabiosis), which constituted the necessary initial stages of symbiogenesis.

    Wheeler, W.M. (1901). The compound and mixed nests of American ants, part 3. Symbiogenesis and psychogenesis. Amer. Nat. 35, 791-818: 801.


    Auf die mutmaßliche Phylogenese (Symbiogenesis Wheelers) der verschiedenen Formen der individuellen und der socialen Myrmecophilie und Termitophilie kann hier nicht eingegangen werden

    Wasmann, E. (1902). Neues über die zusammengesetzten Nester und gemischten Kolonien der Ameisen. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Entomologie 7, 441-449:444.

  • 2) The evolutionary origin of complex organisms by the process of symbiosis.

    [Die Arbeit handelt von meiner] neuen Theorie der Entstehung der Organismen, welche ich in Hinsicht dessen, dass die Hauptrolle in ihr die Erscheinung der Symbiose spielt, vorschlage, die Theorie der Symbiogenesis zu nennen.

    Mereschkowsky, C. (1910). Theorie der zwei Plasmaarten als Grundlage der Theorie der Symbiogenesis: einer neuen Lehre von der Entstehung der Organismen. Biol. Centralbl. 30, 277-303; 321-367: 279.


    by Symbiogenesis […] I mean the direction given to evolution by the long-continued operation of Symbiosis in the production of higher forms of life and in the more complete development of beneficial relations between them.

    Reinheimer, H. (1916). Symbiogenesis. Science Progress in the Twentieth Century 10, 493-497: 493-4.


    At first the symbiotic micrococci were scattered in the Moneran body, but later they became concentrated at one spot, surrounded by a, membrane, and gave rise to the cell-nucleus. In this way, by a “symbiogenesis” or process of symbiosis between two distinct types of organisms, Mereschkowsky believes the nucleated cell to have arisen, an immense step forward in evolution, since the locomotor powers of the simple and delicate Monera were now supplemented by the great capability possessed by the Bacteria of producing ferments of the most varied kinds. The plant-cell camie into existence by a further process of symbiogenesis, in that some of the Cyanophyceae, red, brown or green in color, became symbiotic in nucleated cells, for the most part flagellates, in which they established themselves as the chromatoplhores or chlorophyll-corpuscles.

    Minchin, E.A. (1916). The evolution of the cell. The American Naturalist 50, 5-38: 31.


    symbiogenesis The evolutionary origins of symbiotic relationships between organisms.

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 240.


    This phylogeny, or family tree, of life on Earth indicates the ancient bacterial (prokaryotic) lineages, as well as those of their eukaryotic descendants that evolved by fusion of lineages (i.e., by symbiogenesis to form protists).

    Margulis, L., Schwartz, K.V. & Dolan, M. (1994). The Illustrated Five Kingdoms. A Guide to the Diversity of Life on Earth: 16.

Höxtermann, F. (1998). Konstantin S. Merežkovskij und die Symbiogenesetheorie der Zellevolution. In: Geus, A. (ed.). Bakterienlicht & Wurzelpilz. Endosymbiosen in Forschung und Geschichte, 11-29.