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philosophy of biologyphilosophie de la biologie (fr.); Philosophie der Biologie (ger.)

  • The philosophical analysis of biological concepts and theories, in older usage also the theoretical part of biology.
    biology biophilosophy
    one main inquiry belonging to the Philosophy of Biology is concerning the Fundamental Idea or Ideas which the science [i.e. »the Science of Life«] involves
    Whewell, W. (1840). The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, 2 vols.: II, 4.
    la philosophie de la Biologie
    Hoene-Wroński, J.M. (1842). Le destin de la France, de l’Allemagne, et de la Russie comme prolégomènes du Messianisme: 416.
    vrai fondateur de la philosophie biologique, l’incomparable Bichat
    Comte, A. (1852). Catéchisme positiviste: ou, sommaire exposition de la religion universelle (Paris 1891): 195.
    the true founder of the philosophy of biology, the incomparable Bichat
    Comte, A. (1858). The Catechism of Positive Religion (transl. by R. Congreve): 219.
    It is impossible to overestimate the value of this remarkable book [K.E. von Baer’s Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (1828-37)], or to doubt the great influence which it has exerted, and still exerts, upon the growth of a sound philosophy of Biology
    Sabine, E. (1867). Presidential address. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 16, 163-180: 175.
    [E. Haeckel’s Generelle Morpholologie der Orgnismen is] one of the most instructive contributions to the philosophy of Biology which has appeared in our time
    Lewes, G.H.(1868). Mr. Darwin’s hypotheses. The Fortnightly Review 9, 353-373: 357.
    perhaps the most remarkable service to the philosophy of Biology rendered by Mr. Darwin is the reconciliation of Teleology and Morphology, and the explanation of the facts of both, which his views afford
    Huxley, T.H. (1869). [Rev. Haeckel, E. (1868). The Natural History of Creation]. The Academy 1, 13-14: 13.
    A philosophy of biology must reduce under these principles of philosophy all the truths furnished by experience in the various branches of investigation pertaining to that science; must explain them by these principles; must present them to us as necessary, and the contrary results as illogical and unphilosophical, so as to produce a twofold effect, viz., the highest possible harmony in the system of our knowledges, and an ever-strengthening confirmation of the general principles which are their abstract expression. We must demand of it a verdict upon doctrines respecting the constitution of the living individual and its origin and the constitution of the species to which the individual belongs, which verdict shall oblige us to accept these doctrines as corollaries of the same general principles from which the accepted theories of the other abstract sciences are likewise deduced. Finally, we must derive from this philosophy of biology the assurance that the generalizations which it offers to us are grounds upon which we can stand securely in our deductions—of course within the province of biology—respecting man and the human species
    Cazelles, É.-H. (1876). Modern philosophical biology (Translated from the French by J. Fitzgerald). Popular Science Monthly 8, 595-607: 604.
    Spencer’s Philosophie der Biologie
    F.R. [Friedrich Ratzel?] (1878). [Rev. Spencer, H.(1876). Die Principien der Biologie, 2. ed.]. Archiv für Anthropologie. Zeitschrift für Naturgeschichte und Urgeschichte des Menschen 10, 339-341: 340.
    Solange die biologischen Grunddisciplinen keine wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung finden werden, solange sie keine Begriffe und allgemeine Folgerungen werden aufzuweisen haben, solange keine Philosophie der Biologie existirt, werden die utilitären Fächer, wie z. B. die Medicin, nur als Kunst functioniren und sich auf ein Jagen nach Neumitteln und auf ein beständiges Probiren am Lebenden beschränken
    Lesshaft, P. (1896). Der anatomische Unterricht der Gegenwart. Anatomischer Anzeiger 12, 395-416: 416.
    all that we mean by the philosophy of Biology—the attempt to understand the descriptions of the Science in the light of its later investigations
    Johnstone, J. (1914). The Philosophy of Biology: x.

    Der Organismus läßt sich rein als Mechanismus nicht erfassen. Der Organismus erfordert die teleologische Betrachtung. Die Teleologie ist die Philosophie des Organischen oder des Lebens, ist die Philosophie der Biologie. Es handelt sich darum zu begreifen, in welchem Sinne die Biologie Natur unter einem eigenen Gesichtspunkt betrachtet

    Kühnemann, E. (1924). Kant, Bd. 2. Das Werk Kants und der europäische Gedanke: 494.

Hull, D.L. & Ruse, M. (eds.) (2007). The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology.

Matthen, M. & Stephens, C. (eds.) (2007). Philosophy of Biology (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science).

Ruse, M. (ed.) (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology.

Hull, D.L. (2008). The history of the philosophy of biology. In: Ruse, M. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology, 11-33.

Sarkar, S. & Plutynksi, A. (eds.) (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy).

Gayon, J. (2008) De la biologie à la philosophie de la biologie. In: Monnoyeur, F. (ed.). Questions vitales. Vie biologique, vie psychique, 83-95.

Ayala, F. & Arp, R. (eds.) (2009). Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology.

Rosenberg, A. & Arp, R. (2010). General introduction: a short history of philosophy of biology. In: Philosophy of Biology. An Anthology, 1-13.