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superparasitismSuperparasitismus (ger.)

  • 1) Parasitism of one parasitic organism on another. (OED 2012)

    Superparasitism, the infestation of parasites by other parasites; hyperparasitism.

    Anonymus (1891). The Century Dictionary, 6 vols: VI, 6068.


    The superparasitism of insects becomes analogous, in the biting satire of Swift, to plagiarists, the thieves who in turn become the victims of other thieves.

    Eddy, P.F. (1931). Insects in English poetry. The Scientific Monthly 33, 148-163: 152.


    Other characters of the parasite to be studied and considered are its reproductive rate, power of searching for the host, tendency to superparasitism and hyperparasitism, and rate of dispersion.

    Hoover, W.K. (1933). The biological control of detrimental insects. Bios 4, 75-89: 77.

  • 2) Parasitism of an individual host by more than one parasite or parasitoid of the same species. (OED 2012)

    Superparasitism results when any individual host is attacked by two or more species of primary parasites, or by one species more than once.

    Fiske, W.F. (1910). Superparasitism: an important factor in the natural control of insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 3, 88-97: 89.


    Superparasitism is that form of symbiosis occurring when there is a superabundance of parasites of a single species attacking an individual host insect. Multiple parasitism is that form of symbiosis where the same individual host insect is infested simultaneously with the young of two or more different species of primary parasites.

    Smith, H.S. (1916). An attempt to redefine the host relationships exhibited by entomophagous insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 9, 477-486: 485-6.


    Porcupines of the genus Erethizon are relatively well protected from predators but are subject to superparasitism and a degree of parasitic infestation perhaps not equaled by any native wild mammal of northern North America.

    Jellison, W.L. (1933). Parasites of porcupines of the genus Erethizon (Rodentia). Trans. Amer. Microscop. Soc. 52, 42-47: 42.


    Superparasitismus im Sinne dieser Arbeit liegt […] immer dann vor, wenn auf einen Wirt mehr als ein Legeakt von Weibchen der gleichen Art entfällt, wobei es gleichgültig ist, ob bei jedem dieser Legeakte nur ein Ei (Solitärparasiten) oder viele Eier (Gregärparasiten) abgegeben werden und ob für die Nachkommen nachteilige Folgen daraus erwachsen oder nicht.

    Wilbert, H. (1959). Der Einfluss des Superparasitismus auf den Massenwechsel der Insekten. Beitr. Entomol. 9, 93-139: 95.