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direct/indirect fitnessdirekte/indirekte Fitness (ger.)

  • Direct fitness is measured on the basis of one's own offspring whereas indirect fitness is measured on the basis of related offspring which is created additionally by the organism.
    indirect fitness [...] inclusive fitness minus direct or individual fitness
    Brown, J.L. (1979). Another interpretation of communal breeding in green woodhoopoes. Nature 280, 174; cf. id. (1980). Fitness in complex avian social systems. In: Markl, H. (ed.). Evolution of Social Behaviour. Hypotheses and Empirical Tests, 115-128: 119f.; Brown, J.L. & Brown, E.R. (1981). Kin selection and individual selection in babblers. In: Alexander, R.D. & Tinkle, D. (eds.). Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Results and New Theory, 244-256.