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  • A structure or morphological unit that resulted from the duplication of another structure but acquired a different form and morphological quasi-independence from other parts and, hence, its own own evolutionary fate.    

    appendages such as vertebrate limbs and arthropod legs are axial paramorphs of the main body axis, that is, that they originated as duplicate expression of genes already involved in the growth and patterning of the latter.    

    Minelli, A. (2002). Homology, limbs, and genitalia. Evol. Dev. 4, 127-132: 128.    


    we have to distinguish between two forms of serial homology, one of which is that each copy of the same character has evolutionary individuality similar to paralogous genes. These characters can be called paramorphs (Minelli 2002; Minelli and Fusco 2005) because of the similarity of this situation to genetic paralogs. On the other hand, there are serially homologous parts that lack individuality, like those genes that evolve in concert or cells of the same cell type. […] The notion of paramorph characters acknowledge the fact that differenciation of repeated elements can lead to body parts that follow their own history of descent with modification, even thouch ancestrally they arose fro identically repeated (homomorphic) elements. Paramorph characters, thus, are truly novel in the sense that they represent novel quasi-independent body parts and are, therefore, different homologs.    

    Wagner, G.P. (2014). Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation: 66; 130.