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  • 1) Showing abnormal forms of sexuality (in humans).   

    Die verschiedenen Arten von Parasexualität [Onanie, Narzismus, Fetischismus, Voyeurismus, Pädophilie, Sadismus, Masochismus, Sodomie, Homosexualität, Päderastie] sind gewöhnlich verbunden mit einem vorzeitigen Auftreten des Geschlechtstriebes und können sich deshalb auch sehr früh bemerkbar machen, oft schon mit drei, vier Jahren.

    Bleuler, E. (1916). Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie: 421.


    Fälle von Parasexualität. Schilderung zweier Fäller von abnormer Triebrichtung im Anschluß an ein Jugenderlebnis.

    Kirschbaum, M. (1921). Über seltene Fälle von Parasexualität [Vortragsbericht]. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und psychisch-gerichtliche Medizin 77, 200.


    Parasexual Interests and Practices. A very large literature deals with the unusual in sex life from the viewpoint of reporting the possible varieties of behavior and speculating upon their causes; but so far as we have been able to discover only the studies of Hamilton (47) and Davis (24) devote any attention to the incidence of such phenomena and their correlations among any unselected population. That of Davis and a large part of that of Hamilton are devoted to homosexual behavior; the inquiries of the latter as to anal and urethral erotism, exhibitionism and scoptophilia, sadism and masochism, fetishism, narcissism and incest impulsions appear to constitute the only information in any language (beyond thatof the mere fact of occurrence and some associations in individuals) on these sub- jects. […] our conclusion must be that parasexuality is of slight importance practically, while theoretically it illustratesonly the possibilities of qualitative variation in learning.   

    Willoughby, R.R. (1937). Sexuality in the second cecade. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 2, No. 3, 1-57: 30; 35.

  • 2) Showing any form of genetic recombination that occurs by a process other than the fusion of gametes, as (in certain fungi) by the fusion of nuclei, (in bacteria) by conjugation, transduction, or transformation, or (in viruses) by exchange of genes within a host cell. Also: involving or exhibiting such recombination. (OED 2005)

    In the last ten years, processes other than standard sexual reproduction, and yet resulting in recombination of hereditary properties, have come to light in microorganisms of widely different groups […]. The purpose of the present paper is to give a summary of the work which has led, in our Laboratory, to the discovery in the filamentous fungi of another of these mechanisms, which could be called ‘para-sexual’.   

    Pontecorvo, G. (1954). Mitotic recombination in the genetic systems of filamentous fungi. Proceedings of the 9th. International Congress of Genetics 1, 192-200: 192.   


    The discovery in 1952 by Pontecorvo & Roper (1) of parasexual recombination in Aspergillus nidulans, i.e., recombination of hereditary determinants outside the sexual cycle, has been followed by research [...] The parasexual cycle is known in great detail in A. [Apergillus] nidulans […]
    The steps of the cycle are the following: (a) Fusion of two unlike haploid nuclei in a heterokaryon. (b) Multiplication of the resulting diploid heterozygous nucleus side by side with the parent haploid nuclei in a heterokaryotic condition. (c) Eventual sorting out of a homokaryotic diploid mycelium which may become established as a strain. (d) Mitotic crossing over occurring during multiplication of the diploid nuclei. (e) Vegetative haploidisation of the diploid nuclei.

    Pontecorvo, G. (1956). The parasexual cycle in fungi. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 10, 393-400: 393; 394.   


    [Pontecorvo on parasexuality in fungi.

    Lederberg, J. (1958). [Rev. Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 10]. The Quarterly Review of Biology 33, 94.]


    parasexual Pertaining to organisms that achieve genetic recombination by means other than the regular alternation of meiosis and karyogamy q.v.; parasexual reproduction; cf. eusexual, protosexual.

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 182.