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altricialNesthocker (ger.)

  • Of a young bird or (in later use also) other animal: confined to the nest, burrow, etc., until sufficiently developed to live without parental care. Also: (of a species) bearing young of this kind; nidicolous. (OED 2012)
    parental care precocial

    Blinde, der Aetzung bedürftige Vögel - Nesthocker

    Oken, L. (1816). Okens Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte, vol. 3 Zoologie, Abt. 2: 371; cf. id. (1837). Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände, Thierreich, vol. 4, Abt. 1: 13.


    Expositio Ordinum Avium. Sectio Prior. (Aves Altrices). [...] Alunt pullolos. Aetzbare Vögel Oken.

    Sundevall, C.J. (1836). Ornithologiskt System. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien Handlingar 1835, 43-130: 64.


    Altricial and præcocial orders must be so drawn that, while they are mutually representative to a degree, as wholes, they do not include, each in itself, modified representations of each other.

    Coues, E. (1869). On the classification of water birds. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 21, 193-218: 194.


    Pigeons are altricial, and monogamous

    Coues, E. (1872). Key to North American Birds: 224.


    altricial Used of offspring or of species that show a marked delay in the attainment of independent

    self-maintenance; altrices; cf. precocial.

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 12.

Gaskell, J. (2004). Remarks on the terminology used to describe developmental behaviour among the auks (Alcidae), with particular reference to that of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis. Ibis 146, 231-240.