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cladogramKladogramm (ger.)

  • A dendrogram illustrating the supposed evolutionary relationships between clades; a diagram showing cladistic relationships. (OED 2011)
    systematics phenogram phylogram

    We suggest the term cladogram to distinguish a cladistic dendrogram from a phenetic one which might be called a phenogram

    Camin, J.H. & Sokal, R.R. (1965). A method for deducing branching sequences in phylogeny. Evolution 19, 311-326: 312.


    In a cladogram […] the ordinate gives estimated time

    Mayr, E. (1965). Numerical phenetics and taxonomic theory. Syst. Zool. 14, 73-97: 81; cf. id. (1969). Principles of Systematic Zoology: 254-5.


    Mayr and Camin and Sokal, unknown to each other, proposed on December 29, 1964 the terms cladogram and phenogram at the same meeting of the Society of Systematic Zoology, Knoxville, Tenn.

    Mayr, E. (1978). Origin and history of some terms in systematic and evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology 27, 83-88: 84.


    A cladogram is an atemporal concept; a phylogenetic tree is a cladogram to which the temporal aspect has been added

    Nelson, G.J. (1979). Cladistic analysis and synthesis: principles and definitions, with a historical note on Adanson’s Familles des plantes. Syst. Zool. 28, 1-21: 8.

    cladogram 1: A branching diagram representing the relationships between characters or character states, from which phylogenetic inferences can be made. 2: A diagrammatic representation of the evolutionary branchings of a lineage during divergence from its ancestral stock; species are represented by line segments, extant species denoted by upper case letters, stem species by lower case, branching points correspond to speciation events and are individually denoted by numbers; cf. phenogram, phylogenetic tree.

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 48.

    Cladograms are bifurcation diagrams in which all taxa are in terminal position and in which the vertical axis depicts nothing more but the relative sequence in which the derived characters (or character states) were acquired
    Reif, W.E. (2005). Problematic issues of cladistics: 6. Are phylogenetic trees testable? Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 235, 1-18: 2.