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ProtoctistaProtoctista (ger.)

  • With sing. concord. A kingdom comprising simple eukaryotic organisms which are regarded as intermediate between plants and animals or distinct from both, including unicellular and colonial organisms and closely related multicellular forms (chiefly algae, and formerly also fungi). With pl. concord: organisms of this group collectively. (OED)

    The Primigenal kingdom would comprise all the lower creatures, or the primary organic beings,—‘Protoctista’,—from προτος, first, and χτιστά., created beings;—both Protophyta, or those considered now by many as lower or primary beings having more the nature of plants; and Protozoa, or such as are esteemed as lower or primary beings, having rather the nature of animals.

    Hogg, J. (1861). On the distinctions of a plant and an animal, and on a fourth kingdom of nature. Edinburgh New Philos. J. (N.S.) 12, 216-225: 223.


    The remaining phyla of Protoctista include organisms which […] are believed to have evolved independently of one another […], and to have led to nothing further.

    Copeland, H.F. (1947). Progress report on basic classification. The American Naturalist 81, 340-361: 358.


    kingdom protoctista

    Copeland, H.F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms; cf. Margulis, L. (1981). Symbiosis in Cell Evolution; Margulis, L. & Schwartz, K.V. (1982/88). Five Kingdoms.