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scrambleGedrängekonkurrenz (ger.)

  • Competition for a resource which is used up by consumption, e.g. food. (HWB)

    It is necessary to distinguish between two kinds of competition, as they produce different effects upon the patterns of population growth and maintenance. Scramble is the kind of competition exhibited by a crowd of boys striving to secure broadcast sweets […]. Its characteristics is that success is commonly incomplete, so that some, and at times all, of the requisite secured by the competing animals takes no part in sustaining the population, being dissipated by individuals which obtain insufficient for survival. With contest, on the other hand, the individuals may be said to compete for prizes (such as a host individual, or an amount of favourable space an individual can arrogate to itself) which each provides as much of the requisite as an individual needs to enable it to reach maturity, or provides fully for the development of one or more of its offspring. Thus the individuals are either fully successful, or unsuccessful; and the whole amount of the requisite obtained collectively by the animals is used effectively and without wastage in maintaining the population.

    Nicholson, A.J. (1954). An outline of the dynamics of animal populations. Aust. J. Zool. 2, 9-65: 19-20; for the German terms cf. Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. (1986/96). Ecology (Heidelberg 1998): 150.

    Unter Scramble- oder Gedrängekonkurrenz versteht man eine intraspezifische Konkurrenz, die alle Mitglieder der Population gleichermaßen betrifft, also symmetrisch ist. Eine weitere Form ist die Contest- oder Auseinandersetzungskonkurrenz. Diese ist stets asymmetrisch, das heißt, dass nicht alle Mitglieder der Population in gleicher Weise von ihr betroffen sind.

    Campbell, N.A. & Reece, J.B. (2010/11). Biologie. Gymnasiale Oberstufe (transl. by S. Vogel): 691.