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phylogramPhylogramm (ger.)

  • A dendrogram illustrating phyletic relationships; a branching diagram representing a phylogeny. (OED 2011)
    systematics cladogram phenogram

    [As the phyletic diagram in the last chapter of this volume shows it is from these two lines, supplemented by a few others, that the great mass of genera and species, formerly distinguished as the Polypodiaceae, are derived.

    Lang, W.H. (1949). Fredrick Orpen Bower. 1855-1948. Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 6, 346-374: 367,]


    [If, now, the direction of change in the two morpho-clines is known, it should be possible to construct by extrapolation a phyletic diagram of the group.

    Maslin, T.P. (1952). Morphological criteria of phyletic relationships. Systematic Zoology 1, 49-70: 67.]



    Mayr, E., Linsley, E.G. & Usinger, R.L. (1953). Methods and Principles of Systematic Zoology: 58.]


    The various types of dendrograms, now subdivided into phenograms, cladograms, and phylograms (= ‘true’ dendrograms according to Mayr).

    Sokal, R.R., Camin, J.H., Rohlf, F.J. & Sneath, H.A. (1965). Numerical taxonomy: some points of view. Syst. Zool. 14, 237-243: 241.


    [The differences in the basic attitudes of cladists, pheneticists, and evolutionary taxonomists toward phylogeny are perhaps most clearly displayed in the phyletic diagrams they present. Ideally such a diagram should convey the following information: (A) Cladogenesis (1) What are the major furcations of the ancestral lineages that are responsible for the formation of the existing (or fossil) taxa? (2) At what time in the geological time scale did each branching occur? (B) Anagenesis ( 3) How much evolutionary change has occurred in each line since the last furcation?

    Mayr, E. (1965). Numerical phenetics and taxonomic theory. Syst. Zool. 14, 73-97: 80-1.]


    In order for the classification to serve as a maximally useful information retrieval system, a number of aspects of a classification must be considered when translating the phylogram into a classification.

    Mayr, E. (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: 239.