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deep ecologyTiefenökologie (ger.)

  • A radical environmental philosophy and movement which regards human life as merely one of many equal components of the global ecosystem, and seeks to counter anthropocentric attitudes and policies. (OED 2012)

    I shall make an effort to characterize the two [movements]. 1. The Shallow Ecology movement: Fight against pollution and resource depletion. Central objective: the health and affluence of people in the developed countries. 2. The Deep Ecology movement: (1) Rejection of the man-in-environment image in favor therelational, total-field image. Organisms as knots in the biospherical net or field of intrinsic relations. An intrinsic relation between two things A and B is such that the relation belongs to the definitions of basic constitutions of A and B, so that without the relation, A and B are no longer the same things. The total-field dissolves not only the man-in-environment concept, but every compact thing-in-milieu concept–except when talking at a superficial or preliminary level of communication. (2) Biospherical egalitarianism–in principle. The “in principle” clause is inserted because any realistic praxis necessitates some killing, exploitation, and suppression. The ecological field-worker acquires a deep-seated respect, or even veneration, for ways and forms of life. He reaches an understanding from within, a kind of understanding that others reserve for fellow men and for a narrow section of ways and forms of life. To the ecological field-worker, the equal right to live and blossom is an intuitively clear and obvious value axiom. […] (3) Principles of diversity and of symbiosis. […] (4) Anti-class posture. […] (5) Fight against pollution and resource depletion. […] (6) Complexity, not complication. […] (7) Local autonomy and decentralization

    Naess, A. (1973). The shallow and the deep, long range ecology movement: a summary. Inquiry 16, 95-100: 95-8.


    the standpoint of ‘deep’ ecology

    Passmore, J. (1974). Man’s Responsibility for Nature: Ecological Problems and Western Traditions: 220.

Naess, A. (1984). A defence of the deep ecology movement. Envir. Eth. 6, 265-270.

Tobias, M.I. (ed.) (1985). Deep Ecology.

Devall, B. & Sessions, G. (1985). Deep Ecology. Living as if Nature Mattered.

Fox, W. (1986). Approaching Deep Ecology.

Johnson, L.E. (1991). A Morally Deep World. An Essay on Moral Significance and Environmental Ethics.