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costs of reproductionReproduktionskosten (ger.)

  • Negative effects on fitness, i.e. survival and future reproduction, of any reproductive event.  
    life history

    costs of reproduction […:] The cost of a reproductive function is any quantitative decrement in either the effectiveness of another function, or the probability of surviving to perform that function, or both.

    Williams, G.C. (1966). Natural selection, the costs of reproduction, and a refinement of Lack’s principle. Amer. Nat. 100, 687-690: 687; 688.


    RE [Reproductive Effort] is defined in terms of the “costs” accruing from given levels of reproductive investment; [...] Measurements of the survival costs of reproduction, although more difficult to quantify, may be the most useful single RE estimate for most lizard species.

    Shine, R. (1980). “Costs” of reproduction in reptiles. Oecologia 46, 92-100: 99.