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ecological systemökologisches System (ger.)

  • The complex of interacting organisms of different species in a biological community; biocoenosis; later also including the abiotic factors.  

    The latter species are evidently negligible as general factors in the ecological system, and attention need be given, in discussing the birds of the state as a whole, only to the 21 species common enough to produce some appreciable general effect.

    Forbes, S.A. (1908). The mid-summer bird life of Illinois: a statistical study. Amer. Nat. 42, 505-519: 507.


    During all this long period, it has been widely and steadily forced into a strange ecological system which has nevertheless scarcely yielded to it at any point.

    Forbes, S.A. (1909). The general entomological ecology of the Indian corn plant. American Naturalist 43, 286-301: 299.


    Their objection to what they call “purely ecological points of view” is partly a well-founded objection to the exclusive use of single factors, which is no necessary part of an ecological system, and partly an argument from our igniorance of the conditions involved.

    Tansley, A.G. (1913). [Rev. Brockmann-Jerosch, H. & Rubel, E. (1912). Die Einteilung der Pflanzengesellschaften nach ökologisch-physiognomischen Gesichtspunkten]. Journal of Ecology 1, 27-42: 41.