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MoneraMoneren (ger.)

  • Originally, in Haeckel's taxonomic system: a subdivision of the single-celled organisms (Protozoa or Protista) comprising those lacking a visible nucleus and organelles. Now: a kingdom comprising all prokaryotic organisms (i.e. bacteria and cyanophytes) in classifications where these are distinguished from the kingdom Protista. Also (in form monera): organisms of this group, prokaryotes. (OED 2012)
    Moneren nennen wir alle vollkommen structurlosen und homogenen Organismen, welche lediglich aus einem Stückchen Plasma (einer schleimartigen Eiweiss-Verbindung) bestehen, das sich einfach durch Endosmose ernährt, und durch Schizogonie oder Sporogonie fortpflanzt.
    Haeckel, E. (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, vol. II, xxii; cf. vol. I: 135.

    Erste Ahnenstufe: Moneres. Aelteste, durch Urzeugung entstandene Stammform der Metazoen.

    Haeckel, E. (1875). Die Gastrula und die Eifurchung der Thiere. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 9, 402-508: 406.

    my efforts to recognize a series of natural kingdoms led me to distinguish four of them, called Monera, Protista, Plantae, and Animalia. [...] The Monera are here treated as a kingdom on the basis of two assumptions: that they are the comparatively little modified descendants of whatever single form of life first appeared on earth, and that they are sharply distinguished from other organisms by the absence of nuclei.
    Copeland, H.F. (1938). The kingdoms of organisms. Quart. Rev. Biol. 13, 383-420: 385-6.
    The system differs from that previously presented […] in […] separation of the Monera from the Protista
    Whittaker, R.H. (1969). New concepts of kingdoms of organisms. Science 163, 150-160: 156.
    Monera All prokaryotes: bacteria, blue green algae, mycelial bacteria, gliding bacteria, and so forth
    Margulis, L. (1971). Whittaker’s five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by consideration of the origin of mitosis. Evolution 25, 242-245: 242.