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interdependenceInterdependenz (ger.)

  • The fact or condition of depending each upon the other; mutual dependence. (OED 2012)

    vital interdependence of its parts

    Coleridge, S.T. (1818). The Friend. A Series of Essays, vol. 3: 179.


    It [i.e. the phrenological doctrine] degrades the immaterial mind […] unto a base subserviency to matter, not merely to a state of interdependence with organization

    Anonymus (1825). Is there reason to believe that the doctrines of phrenology are founded in truth? Philomatic Journal 3, 98-144: 129.

    mutual interdependence of the various internal and external organs
    Burnett, G.T. (1830). Illustrations of the Quadrupeda. The Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and Art 28, 336-353: 338.
    true organic unity; the interdependency and mutual necessity of the parts to each other
    Huntington, J. (1839). The Allston exhibition. The Knickerbocker, New York Monthly Magazine 14, 163-174: 165.

    the bond of interdependence in all the parts and actions of a living body, in their constitution to one organic whole

    Green, J.H. (1840). Vital Dynamics. The Hunterian Oration before the Royal College of Surgeons: 83-4; cf. 41; 59; 65; 126.

    organic unity of the human body […] the interdependence of all its parts, each upon all, and all upon each
    Hare, J.C. (1840). The Victory of Faith and Other Sermons: 265.

    interdependency of structure, which unites the different portions of an organic agent into a co-ordinate whole

    Wilberforce, R.J. (1848). The Doctrine of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ: 52-3.


    While the whole organic world, viewed as a living unit, thus differs from the single plant by the much greater interdependence of its parts, on the other hand, it differs from the single animal in the fact that notwithstanding this intimate and instant sympathy of part with part, it has an immense vitality. To cut off the leg of an animal is often sufficient to destroy its life, but one might cut off the head of the animal world, so to speak, without seriously impairing its energy.

    Forbes, S.A. (1880). On some interactions of organisms. Bull. Illinois State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1 (Reprint 1903), 3-18: 3-4.

    interrelations and interdependencies which exist between the various orders of creatures inhabiting this planet
    Mivart, G.J. (1889). On Truth: 493.
    mutual assistance or inter-dependence of parasite and host
    Pound, R. (1893). Symbiosis and mutualism. Amer. Nat. 27, 509-520: 509.

    in all parts of nature and in nature itself as one gigantic whole, wholes are so related to their parts that not only does the existence of the whole depend on the orderly cooperation and interdependence of its parts, but the whole exercises a measure of determinative control over its parts.

    Ritter, W.E. & Bailey, E.W. (1928). The organismal conception: its place in science and its bearings on philosophy. University of California Publications in Zoology 31, 307-358: 307.   

    declaration of interdependence
    Wallace, H.A. (1933). Declaration of interdependence (radio speech of May 13th 1933; printed in: Democracy Reborn, New York 1944: 43).

    The nature of cellular organization lies in the complex web of interactions and interdependencies among its constituents.

    Weiss, P.A. (1961). Structure as the coordinating principle in the life of the cell. Proceedings of the Robert A. Welch Foundation Coference on Chemical Research, vol. V, 5-31: 6.


    the cell (as well as any of its subsystems) is not only made up of heterogeneous parts, but the various segments of this molecular and particulate population are so constituted that they assume the proper mutual space and functional relations simply by virtue of their own activities, rather than by passive allocation within a fixed framework. Some of the interacting subsystems are in such cooperative interdependence—symbiotically as it were—that neither can proceed without essential contributions from the other

    Weiss, P.A. (1961). From cell to molecule. In: Allen, J.M. (ed.). The Molecular Control of Cellular Activity, 1-72: 7.


    In […] raising the sights from statics to dynamic, static interrelations become dynamic interactions, and in the case of self-sustaining systems with the conservative features of wholeness, simple interactions become interdependencies.

    Weiss, P. (1967). 1 + 1 ≠ 2. In: Quarton G.C., Melnechuk, T. & Schmitt, F.O. (eds.). The Neurosciences, 801-821: 805.


    Die Ordnung der Interdependenz ist durch den Umstand gekennzeichnet, daß Merkmale oder Begriffe (Ereignisse) nur aufgrund ihrer steten Verknüpfung mit bestimmten weiteren oder gleichrangigen Merkmalen oder Begriffen in ihrer Bedeutung und Geltung bestimmt werden.

    Riedl, R. (1975). Die Ordnung des Lebendigen. Systembedingungen der Evolution: 222.