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cooperationcooperatio (lat.); cooperation (fr.); Kooperation (ger.)

  • The action of co-operating, i.e. of working together towards the same end, purpose, or effect; joint operation. (OED)
    c. 400

    [item dicimus, nec patrem, nec filium, sed solum spiritum sanctum, et in columbae speciem et in linguis uelut igneis apparuisse, et dedisse pronuntiare illis in quos uenerat, multis et uariis linguis magnalia dei: a quo tamen miraculo ad solum spiritum sanctum pertinente, cooperationem patris et uerbi unigeniti separare non possumus.

    Augustinus (c. 400). Sermones: serm. 71 (Revue Bénédictine 75, p. 95).]


    Praeterea, sicut corpus cooperatur animae ad meritum, ita corpus operatur ei ad peccatum. Sed propter cooperationem praedictam non solum anima, sed et corpus post resurrectionem praemiabitur.

    Thomas Aquinas (1254-56). In IV Sententiarum: dist. 44, quaet. 3, art. 1, quaestiuncula 3, sed contra: 1.


    Sed in iustificatione impii Deus ex aliquo aliquid facit, idest ex impio iustum, et est ibi aliqua cooperatio ex parte hominis, quia est ibi motus liberi arbitrii, ut dictum est. [But in the justification of the ungodly God makes something from something, i.e. a just man from a sinner, and there is a cooperation on man’s part, since there is a movement of the free-will, as stated above.]

    Thomas Aquinas (1266-73). Summae theologiae prima secundae: quaest. 113, art. 9, arg. 3 [transl. by Fathers of the English Dominican Province, 1920]


    lam colligo in illa actione sensibilis, qua sensum mouet motor ille non aliter operabitur, qua in cæteras corporales actiones ignis, aquae: &c. Sed cooperatio extrinseci motoris non facit has spirituales

    Miguel de Palacio (1557). In tres libros Aristotelis De anima: 122.


    perfectissimam vitalium organorum cooperationem [la cooperation parfaite des organes vitaux]

    Delrio, M.A. (1599). Disquisitionum magicarum libri sex in tres tomos partiti, vol. 1: 43 [French transl: Delrio, M.A. (1611). Les controverses et recherches magiques: 53].


    par une suite de sa nature individuelle, & de la coopération des autres organes avec lesquels il [l’organe de perception] est successivement combiné, cet automate divin peut s’élever de l’état de simple action & réaction, à celui de perception obscures; de ce cernier à l’état de sensations, puis de perceptions claires, & enfin de perception plus ou moins distinctes

    Beguelin (1780). Recherches sur les unités de la nature. Nouveaux mémoires de l’Académie royale des sciences et belles-lettres, anneé 1778, 279-298: 296-7.


    When material substances are applied to the living or sensitive principle, such as are congenial to it, and are capable of cooperation with it, are selected, become adherent to, and recipient of, animal and spiritual life and form

    Brown, S. (1800). A Treatise on the Nature, Origin and Progress of the Yellow Fever: 53.


    [Mutual [social] Co-operation

    Owen, R. (1818). A View and Plan of Agricultural and Manufacturing Villages of Unity and Mutual Co-operation.]


    Die ungestörte Cooperation aller Organe der Leiblichkeit reflectirt sich im Selbstgefühl eben sowohl, als die geistige Harmonie

    Rosenkranz, K. (1837). Psychologie, oder, die Wissenschaft vom subjectiven Geist: 144.


    La société humaine est surtout caractérisée par la coopération continue des générations successives, première source de l’évolution propre à notre espèce.

    Comte, A. (1851). Système de politique positive, vol. 1: xxxiv.


    [Die Form der Arbeit vieler, die in demselben Produktionsprozeß oder in verschiedenen, aber zusammenhängenden Produktionsprozessen planmäßig neben- und miteinander arbeiten, heißt Kooperation.

    Marx, K. (1867). Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie, vol. 1 (Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, vol. 23, Berlin 1969): 344.]


    It is needless to do more than name the mutual dependence between these two great divisions [viz. plants and animals]. That, as being respectively decomposers [!] of carbon dioxide and exhalers of carbon dioxide, they act reciprocally, as also in some measure by interchange of nitrogenous matters; and that the implied general cooperation serves in an indirect way to unite their lives, and in that sense to integrate the two kingdoms; needs not to be insisted upon

    Spencer, H. (1867/99). The Principles of Biology, vol. 2: 398-9 (not in 1st ed.).


    The organism is primary, not secondary, it is an individual, not by virtue of the coöperation of countless lesser individualities, but an individual that produces these lesser individualities on which its full expression depends. The persistence of organization is a primary law of embryonic development

    Lillie, F.R. (1906). Observations and experiments concerning the elementary phenomena of embryonic development in Chaetopterus. J. exper. Zool. 3, 153-267: 252.


    the highly specific catalysis of further macromolecules species through the enzymatic action of proteins, is often referred tob y verbs with the anthropomorphic prefix “self”, these processes are no more “self”-engendered than an arch can be “self”-building; for in order to occur at all, they require the specific cooperation of their own terminal products […] thus close the circle of interdependent component processes to a coherent integrated system. Only the integral totality of such a system could with some justification be called “self-contained”, “self-perpetuating”, and “self-sustaining”.

    Weiss, P. (1973). The Science of Life. The Living System – A System for Living: 37-8.


    To account for the manifest existence of cooperation and related group behavor, such as altruism and restraint in competition, evolutionarytheory has recently acquired two kinds of extension. These extensions are, broadly, genetical kinship theory […] and reciprocation theory

    Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W.D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. Science 211, 1390-1396: 1390.


    There may also be some supraorganismal cooperation between organisms, but it is haphazard; you cannot pick a level above the organism and expect to see all cooperation and no conflict

    Queller, D.C. (1997). Cooperators since life began. Quart. Rev. Biol. 72, 184-188: 187.


    Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of evolution is its ability to generate cooperation in a competitive world. Thus, we might add “natural cooperation” as a third fundamental principle of evolution beside mutation and natural selection.

    Nowak, M.A. (2006). Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science 314, 1560-1563: 1563.


    Kooperation (cooperation): Zusammenarbeit zwischen Mitgliedern einer Population zum gegenseitigen Nutzen, oft einhergehend mit sozialer Interaktion, z. B. bei gemeinsamer Jagd ober bei der Brutpflege.

    Schaefer, M. (1975/2012). Wörterbuch der Ökologie: 149.