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precocialNestflüchter (ger.)

  • Of an animal, esp. a bird: able to move about and feed independently soon after hatching or birth; having young which are able to do this; nidifugous. (OED 2007)  
    parental care altricial

    Avium Sectio Posterior. (Aves Præcoces).

    Sundevall, C.J. (1836). Ornithologiskt System. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien Handlingar 1835, 43-130: 70.


    Die andern kommen schon ziemlich befiedert und sehend aus dem Ei, und können fast sogleich davon laufen und ihre Nahrung suchen. Ich nenne sie Nestflüchter.

    Oken, L. (1837). Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände, Thierreich, vol. 4, Abt. 1: 13; not in: id. (1821). Naturgeschichte für Schulen.


    Altricial and præcocial orders must be so drawn that, while they are mutually representative to a degree, as wholes, they do not include, each in itself, modified representations of each other.

    Coues, E. (1869). On the classification of water birds. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 21, 193-218: 194.


    Præcoces, birds that run about at birth. Præcocial, able to run about at birth.

    Coues, E. (1872). Key to North American Birds: Index.

    altricial-precocial spectrium
    Starck, J.M. & Ricklefs, R.E. (1998). Patterns of development: the altricial-precocial spectrum. In: Starck, J.E. & Ricklefs, R.E. (eds). Avian Growth and Development, 3-30.

Gaskell, J. (2004). Remarks on the terminology used to describe developmental behaviour among the auks (Alcidae), with particular reference to that of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis. Ibis 146, 231-240.